2012年5月25日星期五

西藏佛学与科学

拉多先生在把达赖喇嘛尊者的讲话翻译成印度语 (朱瑞摄于2010年6月)

采访拉多先生(桑杰嘉摄于2011年3月)


——访谈达兰萨拉西藏图书馆馆长拉多先生

采访:朱瑞

截止201110月,西藏流亡社区已召开了23届佛学与科学的对话会。我在达兰萨拉期间,看到很多科学家,从世界各地云集于那里,感慨万千。因此,采访了多次主持科学与佛学研讨会的拉多先生。他是一位出家人,获拉让巴格西学位;曾为达赖喇嘛尊者的英文翻译,现为达兰萨拉西藏图书馆馆长(原为英文采访,只翻译了大意)。

朱瑞:西藏佛学与科学之间有那些相似之处?

拉多:西藏佛教的密宗部分,就与科学有很多联系。比如,在神经科学领域,无论是佛学还是科学,都注重腦部功能和神經網絡的運作,雖然科學家們探讨大腦的感知,而佛教重视是心靈的感知。

我们知道,粒子物理研究的是粒子、原子等等,而佛教的中心部分,也函括这些知识。 作为科学的哲学可以被认为,这些领域是对狭义相对论的探索。另一个共性是,佛学中的缘起概念。在对心灵的探索上,这两个学科的相似的例子很多,都寻求发现自然规律,他们的目标或目的可能是不同的,但是都强调认识自然规律的重要性。

朱瑞:西藏佛学在哪些方面超越了科学?

拉多:我认为,这涉及心的安定的本质。科学不接受佛学的这个关于心的安定的理论,心是一种人性的光明,也是一种精神状态,完全独立于大脑和身体。科学不仅不承认佛教这种完全独立于物体的涅磐、成佛,得到佛的三身(即报身、化身、法身),也不承认其他的超越力量。

朱瑞:那么,为什么这么多的科学家从世界各地来到这里?

拉多:有些人为了改变自己的生活方式,产生了学习佛教哲学的兴趣,还有一些人,只是很简单地为了通晓某些领域,而在这个领域,科学还没有给出答案。另外一些人,是想在科学与佛学之间进行比较研究。总之,因人而异。

朱瑞:西藏佛学对人类有那些益处?

拉多:我们可能从肉体,物质和经济上得到利益。但是,仅停留在这一点,是很难获得内在的幸福与和平的。为此,我们需要自我转型。常常地,我们的生活中,会出现意外的情况,毁掉我们获得的这种利益,事实上,无常总是跟随着我们。然而,不管外在的形势怎么的变化,密宗,都可以让我们掌握,如何成就内在的和平与幸福。


Rui:  Is there a common connection between 21st century science and Tibetan Buddhism?

Lhakdor: Yes, there is if you look into Tantric Buddhism you will find many aspects of it that could be related to science. For example in the area of neuroscience both disciplines examine the brain to understend its functions and how its neuro-networks operate. While scientists discuss the brain’s perception of an object, Buddhists refers to the mind’s perception of objects. Particle physics, which studies particles, atoms, and so forth, has a center part in Buddhism which also faces on these things. Furthermore, in areas that could be thought of as scientific philosophy in which special relativity is explored, we find another commonality with Buddhism which develops the concept of dependant origination.

These are some of the many examples of similarities between the two disciplines mentally both seek to discover the laws of nature. Their objectives or aims may involve different approaches but both emphasize the importance of understanding the laws of nature.

Rui: What aspect of Tibetan Buddhism goes beyond science?

Lhakdor: I think that is related to the nature of the settled mind. Science does not accept Buddhism’s concept of the very settled mind, with its references to the clear light and a state of mind.  Completely independent from the brain and the body neither does science agree with Buddhism’s concepts of nirvana, enlightenment, achieving relations of the three bodies of Buddha, nor many other transcendental notions (beliefs).

Rui:  why do scientists come here from all over the would?

Lhakdor: some are interested in studying the philosophy in order to change their own lives others simply want to learn about Buddhist explanations connected to certain areas in which science has nor yet fund answers. Some want to make a comparative study between science and Buddhism. It depends on the individual.  

Rui: How does Tibetan Buddhism benefit humanity?

Lhakdor: It is possible to derive benefit from material, physical, and economic sources. However, if we stop there, it is difficult to achieve happiness and peace of mind. For this we need transformation within one self in this world there is always the possibility of being in a situation of turbulence, imposed by often unanticipated circumstances which can destroy the benefit. we are acquired. With Tantric Buddhism we can learn how to achieve happiness and inner peace which can be felt no matter how external circumstances change.


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